Ailments & Remedies

Ailments List

Respiratory Disorders

All diseases related to the respiratory system are termed as Respiratory disorders. Ailments of the bronchial tubes, trachea, pleural cavity, upper respiratory tract and related nerves of the lungs including cold, pulmonary embolism and bacterial pneumonia are all classed as respiratory diseases.

 

The symptoms of respiratory diseases are different and depending on the disease. Some of the most common symptoms are: general malaise, shortness of breath, unplanned weight loss, bluish discolouration of the lips, tongue or fingers (Cynosis), loss of appetite.

 

In some cases a respiratory disease can be diagnosed without symptoms while investigating another disease or through a routine check. Respiratory diseases can be classified in different ways: by the organ affected or involved in the symptoms, by the pattern of symptoms or by the cause of the disease.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

In Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) the airways have been damaged and therefore narrowed, thus obstructing airflow in and out of the lungs.

 

Obstructive lung diseases

Obstructive lung diseases are affect the lung where the bronchial tubes become narrowed making it difficult to move air in and especially out of the lung.

 

Restrictive lung diseases

Restrictive lung diseases (or interstitial lung diseases) are respiratory diseases characterised by a loss of lung compliance, causing incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. An example of these is infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS).

 

Respiratory tract infections

Infections can affect any part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.

 

Upper respiratory tract infection

The most frequently found upper respiratory tract infection is the cold. Other infections of specific organs of the upper respiratory tract such as sinusitis, tonsillitis, otitis media, pharyngitis and laryngitis are also considered upper respiratory tract infections.

 

Lower respiratory tract infection

The most common lower respiratory tract infection is pneumonia, an infection of the lung. In the Western world, Pneumonia is usually caused by bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae. Worldwide, tuberculosis is an major cause of pneumonia. Other pathogens such as viruses and fungi can cause pneumonia. A pneumonia may develop complications.

 

Respiratory tumours

Tumours of the respiratory system are either malignant or benign.

 

Malignant tumours

Malignant tumours, or cancers of the respiratory system, particularly lung cancers, are a major health problem.. The majority of respiratory system cancers are attributable to smoking tobacco.

The major types of respiratory system cancer are:

  • Small cell lung cancer
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Other lung cancers (carcinoid, Kaposi’s sarcoma, melanoma)
  • Lymphoma
  • Head and neck cancer
  • Mesothelioma, usually caused by exposure to asbestos dust.

 

In addition, as many cancers spread via the bloodstream and the entire cardiac output passes through the lungs, it is common for cancer metastases to be found in the lung. Breast cancer may invade directly through local spread, and through lymph node metastases. After metastasis to the liver, colon cancer frequently metastasises to the lung. Prostate cancer, germ cell cancer and renal cell carcinoma may also metastasise to the lung.

 

Benign tumours

Benign tumours are relatively rare causes of respiratory disease. Examples of benign tumours are Pulmonary hamartoma and Congenital malformations such as pulmonary sequestration and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM).

 

Pleural cavity diseases

Pleural cavity diseases include empyema and mesothelioma.

A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is known as a pleural effusion. This may be due to fluid shifting from the bloodstream into the pleural cavity due to conditions such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis. It may also be due to inflammation of the pleura itself due to infection, pulmonary embolus, tuberculosis, mesothelioma and other conditions.

A pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura covering the lung allowing air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity. The affected lung “collapses” like a deflated balloon. A tension pneumothorax is a particularly severe form of this condition where the air in the pleural cavity cannot escape, so the pneumothorax keeps getting bigger until it compresses the heart and blood vessels, leading to a life threatening situation.

 

Pulmonary vascular diseases

Pulmonary vascular diseases are conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation .

 

Pulmonary embolism

A blood clot that forms in a vein, breaks free, travels through the heart and lodges in the lungs (thromboembolism). Large pulmonary emboli are fatal, causing sudden death. A number of other substances can also embolise to the lungs but they are much more rare: fat embolism (particularly after bone injury), amniotic fluid embolism (with complications in labour and delivery), air embolism (iatrogenic).

 

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

This is characterised by elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries. It can also be due to the effects of another disease, particularly COPD. This can lead to strain on the right side of the heart, a condition known as cor pulmonale.

 

Pulmonary oedema,

This is a leakage of fluid from capillaries of the lung into the alveoli (or air spaces). It is usually caused by congestive heart failure.

 

Pulmonary haemorrhage

It inflames and damages the capillaries in the lung, resulting in blood leaking into the alveoli. This may cause blood to be coughed up. Pulmonary haemorrhage can be due to auto-immune disorders such as Wegener's Granulomatosis and Goodpasture's syndrome.

 



Common Remedies

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